To assess the validity of sleep architecture and sleep continuity biomarkers obtained from a portable, multichannel forehead electroencephalography (EEG) recorder.
Forty-seven subjects simultaneously underwent polysomnography (PSG) while wearing a multichannel frontopolar EEG recording device (Sleep Profiler). The PSG recordings independently staged by 5 registered polysomnographic technologists were compared for agreement with the autoscored sleep EEG before and after expert review. To assess the night-to-night variability and first night bias, 2 nights of self-applied, in-home EEG recordings obtained from a clinical cohort of 63 patients were used (41% with a diagnosis of insomnia/depression, 35% with insomnia/obstructive sleep apnea, and 17.5% with all three). The between-night stability of abnormal sleep biomarkers was determined by comparing each night's data to normative reference values.
The mean overall interscorer agreements between the 5 technologists were 75.9%, and the mean kappa score was 0.70. After visual review, the mean kappa score between the autostaging and five raters was 0.67, and staging agreed with a majority of scorers in at least 80% of the epochs for all stages except stage N1. Sleep spindles, autonomic activation, and stage N3 exhibited the least between-night variability (P < .0001) and strongest between-night stability. Antihypertensive medications were found to have a significant effect on sleep quality biomarkers (P < .02).
A strong agreement was observed between the automated sleep staging and human-scored PSG. One night's recording appeared sufficient to characterize abnormal slow wave sleep, sleep spindle activity, and heart rate variability in patients, but a 2-night average improved the assessment of all other sleep biomarkers.