Non-REM Hypertonia

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Study-1 highlights the distributions of a novel sleep biomarker, non-REM hypertonia (NRH), across Parkinsonian Spectrum Disorder (PSD) and non-PSD subtypes.  Study-2 demonstrates that NRH is unaffected by SSRI/SNRI use, unlike REM sleep without atonia (RSWA).  Study-3 establishes a strong association between abnormal NRH and the clinical diagnosis of isolated REM sleep behavior disorder using RSWA.  Study-4 confirms sleep spindle duration as a biomarker for Parkinsonian Spectrum Disorders.  Study-5 combines abnormal spindle-duration and NRH as a means to differentiate across and between the PSD vs. the non-PSD subtypes.